2016年考研英语语法解析名词性从句之同位语

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从句同位语从句在主句中充当同位语,是个句子,通常句式是: “抽象名词+连接词+从句”,这些名词主要有:belief/idea/fact/promise/truth/problem/reason/thought/order/doubt/news/suggestion/advice/question/view/argument等。

  当从句意义完整用that;不完整需增加是否用whether;需增加其他含义用相应连接词。同位语从句与定语从句易混淆,下边两个简单的句子进行区分。

  句一:The news that I have passed the exam is true.我通过考试的消息是真的。

  句二:The news that he told me just now is true.他刚刚告诉我的那个消息是真的。

  单从翻译上看,两句话本质上没有区别,但确是两种不同的语法形式。

  我们首先从意义上来看,同位语从句与其前的名词是同位关系,即说明它前面名词的内容;定语从句限定它前面的名词范围或补充一些情况。

  句一中的从句that I have passed the exam(我通过考试)是前边名词news的具体内容,是同位关系,因此是同位语从句;

  句二中的从句that he told me just now中的直接宾语是前边的名词,因此该从句是限定前边的名词,因而是定语从句。

  我们再从句法上来区分,看关系词在句中是否作成分。句一that只是引导句子;句二that做从句中的直接宾语成分。

  句子一:MESBIC’s are the result of the belief that providing established firms with easier access to relevant management techniques and more job-specific experience, as well as substantial amounts of capital, gives those firms a greater opportunity to develop sound business foundations than does simply making general management experience and small amounts of capital available.

  句子主干是MESBIC’s are the result of the belief. 后边that引导belief的同位语从句,从句主语是providing established firms,谓语是gives,间接宾语是those firms,直接宾语是a greater opportunity,后边的不定式做目的状语。

  参考翻译:MESBIC的建立是基于这种信念:提供给已建立公司一些更容易获得的相关的管理技术,更具体的工作经验以及大笔资金,相比简单地给与一般的管理经验和小笔资金,这些更能使它们获得更多机会去建立稳固的商业基础。

  句子二:Yet Walzer's argument, however deficient, does point to one of the most serious weaknesses of capitalism----namely, that it brings to predominant positions in a society people who, no matter how legitimately they have earned their material rewards, often lack those other qualities that evoke affection or admiration.

  句子主干是Yet Walzer's argument does point to one of the most serious weaknesses of capitalism. however deficient做让步状语,that从句为同位语从句,从句主语是it,谓语是brings,注意bring的用法,应该是bring sb. sth.或者bring sth. to sb.所以这里倒装,把people后置了,who引导定语从句修饰people,从句的主语是who,谓语是lack,宾语是 qualities,no matter how legitimately they have earned their material rewards是让步状语从句。

  参考翻译:但是Walzer的论证(尽管还不充分),确实指出了资本主义的严重缺点之一,比如:资本主义把一些人送到了一个社会中的支配地位。无论这些人是怎样合法地获得了物质回报,他们都缺乏一些会激发起人们爱慕或钦佩的素质。

  英语的记忆需要大家不断地记忆,这不是一个一次就能记住的,需要靠大家反复进行。大家要有一颗恒心,坚持不懈,这样英语的学习就会简单。

文章来源:2016年考研英语语法解析名词性从句之同位语