考研英语历年真题解析

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The differences in relative growth of various areas of scientific research have several causes.(71)Some of these causes are completely reasonable results of social needs.Others are reasonable consequences of particular advances in science being to some extent self-accelerating.Some,however,are less reasonable processes of different growth in which preconceptions of the form scientific theory ought to take,by persons in authority,act to alter the growth pattern of different areas.This is a new problem probably not yet unavoidable;but it is a frightening trend.(72)This trend began during the Second World War,when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail.It can be predicted,however,that from time to time,questions will arise which will require specific scientific answers.It is therefore generally valuable to treat the scientific establishment as a resource or machine to be kept in functional order.(73)This seems mostly effectively done by supporting a certain amount of research not related to immediate goals but of possible consequence in the future.
This kind of support,like all government support,requires decisions about the appropriate recipients of funds.Decisions based on utility as opposed to lack of utility are straight forward.But a decision among projects none of which has immediate utility is more difficult.The goal of the supporting agencies is the praisable one of supporting“good”as opposed to“bad”science,but a valid determination is difficult to make.Generally,the idea of good science tends to become confused with the capacity of the field in question to generate an elegant theory.(74)However,the world is so made that elegant systems are in principle unable to deal with some of the worlds more fascinating and delightful aspects.(75)New forms of thought as well as new subjects for thought must arise in the future as they have in the past,giving rise to new standards of elegance.
 
真题解析
解析:
71) Some of these causes are completely reasonable results of social needs. Others are reasonable consequences of particular advances in science being to some extent self-accelerating.
句子分析:
第一、句子可以拆分为三段:Some of these causes are completely reasonable results of social needs. / Others are reasonable consequences of particular advances in science / being to some extent self-accelerating.
第二、句子的结构:
这是两个简单句。在所有英译汉真题中,划线部分都是一个句子,要么是一个简单句,要么是一个复合句,由两个简单句构成一个考题这是惟一的一次。这两个简单句都是主系表结构。
1)主干结构是对比句Some... are... reasonable results of... Others are reasonable consequences of...
2) particular advances后面有多重定语in science being to some extent self-accelerating.
第三、词的处理:
 ①Some of these causes直译为“这些原因中的一些”,按照汉语习惯可译为“其中一些原因”。注意:these在此为指示代词,由于它修饰名词,相当于形容词,一般直接翻译成代词,而不需要译成名词。但如果出现表达不清,或者补充说明之后更清楚,则可以根据文章的意思加形容词或者译成名词。(参见下面第72题关于this trend和2003年第63题关于this study的解释。)
②reasonable results合理的结果,必然结果
③others代词=other reasons,应译成名词“其他原因”。
④reasonable consequences=reasonable results
⑤particular advances in science科学中的特定发展
⑥being self_accelerating分词短语,修饰名词science。accelerate意为“加速”,self_accelerating意为“自我加速的”。
⑦to some extent在某种程度上
to...extent意为“在…程度上”,其他例子如:
to a large(或great) extent在很大程度上
to that extent到那个程度
to an (或a certain) extent在一定程度上
are... results of 是……的结果,来自于
完整的译文:
在这些原因中,有些完全是自然而然地来自社会需求,另一些则是由于科学在一定程度上自我加速而产生某些特定发展的必然结果。
 
72) This trend began during the Second World War, when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail.
句子分析:
第一、句子可以拆分为三段:This trend began during the Second World War, when several governments came to the conclusion / that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment / cannot generally be foreseen in detail.
第二、句子的结构:
这是一个多重复合句。This trend began是主谓结构的主句,during the Second World War是介词短语作状语修饰主句,when several governments came to the conclusion是定语从句修饰the Second World War, that the specific demands cannot be foreseen是名词conclusion的同位语从句,而that a government wants to make是修饰the specific demands的定语从句,of its scientific establishment是修饰make的状语,in detail是修饰foreseen的状语。
第三、词的处理:
①This trend译成“这种趋势”是可以接受的,因为this是指示代词,可以直接翻译,但如果按前面句子的意思补充成“这种可怕的趋势”当然是更好的做法。(参见1995年第71题关于the target及2003年第63题关于this study的解释)
②when引导定语从句注意:when引导定语从句不能与引导时间状语从句相混淆,当然也不能译成“当…的时候”。when引导定语从句时前面一般有表示时间的名词作先行词,如果是过去时,when译成“其时”、“当时”、“在那个时候”,如果是将来时,则译成“到时”、“届时”,有时候还可以译成“然后”、“随后”。
请看下面的例子:
The Queen will visit the small town in April, when she will open the new hospital.
女王将于四月访问小镇,到时(或届时)她要主持这家新医院的开业仪式。
I expect to be there no longer than two days, when I shall return.
我预计至多在那儿呆两天,随后我就回来。
题中when前面的先行词是the Second World War,因为句子里用的是过去时,when因此翻译成“当时”或“那时”。(参见2001年第73题关于when的解释)
③came to the conclusion得出了这样的结论
④that引导同位语从句,与名词conclusion是同位关系。
注意:英语中that引导同位语从句与that引导定语从句很容易混淆,现在我们来看一看它们的区别:
a.同位语从句与先行词是相等的关系,定语从句与先行词是修饰的关系。请比较:b. He heard the news that his team had won.(the news=his team had won, that引导同位语从句)
他听到他们队获胜的消息。
It is a question that needs very careful consideration.(that从句修饰名词question,所以是定语从句)
这是一个需要认真考虑的问题。
b.在同位语从句中,that只是一个连词,不充当从句的任何成分;而在定语从句中,that必须充当句子的一个成分(主语、宾语等等)。请对比:
The fact that the prisoner was guilty was plain to everybody.(that不充当句子的任何成分,所以引导同位语从句)
这个犯人有罪的事实大家都很清楚。
The news that appeared in the paper this morning was well received.(that充当从句的主语,所以引导定语从句)
今天早晨报纸上刊登的消息引起了很大的反响。
c.充当定语从句先行词的名词是无限的,而充当同位语从句先行词的名词是有限的
一些表示概括意义的抽象名词:assumption, fact, idea, news, belief, message, proposal, proposition, evidence, proof, possibility, suggestion, feeling等。例如:
Obviously there was little probability that they would succeed, but they didn't mind.(同位语从句)
很显然,他们成功的可能性极小,但是他们不在意。
I have a feeling that our team is going to win.(同位语从句)
我有一种感觉,那就是我们的球队将取胜。
We'll be there tomorrow on the assumption that it doesn't rain.(同位语从句)
假如不下雨,我们明天就去那里。
同位语从句的翻译
同位语从句的翻译与定语从句的翻译很相似,如果同位语从句较简单,一般采用合译,that不用翻译出来;如果较为复杂,则采取拆译,这时that经常译成“即”、“那就是”之类的词,或使用冒号、破折号之类的标点;有时则根据具体的用词译成状语从句。(三种情况均可参见上面的举例)
题中that引导的同位语从句要么用冒号来表示,要么译成“那就是”。
⑤that a government wants to make of...在这个定语从句中,由于有a government作从句主语,that只能在从句中作宾语。
注意:关于that在定语从句中作宾语(参见1994年第72题关于that在定语从句中作主语和1997年第71题关于that在定语从句中的省略):that引导定语从句、同时在从句中做宾语是英译汉的一个重要考点,我们不要以为that不作从句主语就可以放松警惕,动词后面缺少宾语往往会使整个句子无法理解或改变句子的意思。请看这样一个例子:
A report that he stole was ultimately sent to the police.
这是一个歧义句。如果把that从句理解为定语从句,that就是关系代词,充当从句谓语动词stole的宾语,整个句子应该译成:他偷来的一份报告最终送到了警察局。如果把that从句理解为同位语从句,that则是一个连词,不充当任何句子成分,而stole为不及动词,整个句子应该译为:关于他进行偷窃的一份报告最终送到了警察局。因此,定语从句that a government wants to make of...实际上等于说a government wants to make specific demands of..., make demands of...是个动词短语,意为“对…提要求”。整个从句可译为:一个政府想要对…提出的具体要求。
⑥scientific establishment科研机构
注意:establishment在四级考试大纲中就已经提供了“机构”的解释,考研大纲里依然有“机构”这个词义,但知道这一用法的人并不多。这说明有些单词没有我们想像的那么简单,作为考研考生应该明白这一点并且寻找解决问题的办法。事实上,我们可以从英语喜欢用抽象表达,而汉语喜欢用具体表达这一特点找到突破口,首先确定这个词不能理解成抽象的“建立”,然后观察文章中是否提供了线索,结果我们可以在这个句子后面找到treat the scientific establishment as a resource or machine(把科学establishment看作是一种资源或者一台机器),而“科学资源”或者“科学机器”是可以让我们联想到“科研机构”的。(参见1999年第72题关于intellectual discipline的解释)
⑦cannot be foreseen直译“无法被预见”,将被动变主动表达更自然:“无法预见”。
⑧in detail惯用法,意为“详细地”。例如:
explore a topic in some detail较详细地探讨一个题目
work out a plan in great detail极具体地制订计划
the news in detail新闻的详细内容
完整的译文:
这种趋势始于第二次世界大战期间,当时一些国家的政府得出结论:政府向科研机构提出的具体要求通常是无法详尽预见的。
 
73)This seems mostly effectively done by supporting a certain amount of research not related to immediate goals but of possible consequence in the future.
句子分析:
第一、句子可以拆分为三段:This seems mostly effectively done / by supporting a certain amount of research not related to immediate goals / but of possible consequence in the future.
第二、句子的结构:
这是一个简单句。This seems...done是句子的主干,by supporting...是介词短语作方式状语,not...but...结构作后置定语修饰名词research。
1)主干结构是系词+过去分词+被动宾语:This seems mostly effectively done by...
2)research后面是双重定语not related to... but of...由此断定related to意思等于of
第三、词的处理:
①this代词作主语。前文曾出现过problem一词,接着又有“…无法预见,然而可以预见的是…,因此…”这样的叙述,this显然是指代名词“problem”。
②mostly意为“几乎全部地,主要地,一般地,通常”。
注意:
mostly不能与most(最)相混淆,请看下面关于mostly的用法举例:
The work is mostly done.
那工作差不多已完成了。
The men at the party were mostly fairly young.
宴会上的男人多数相当年轻。
She had had a very exciting career, mostly in Birmingham.
她曾有过一个富有刺激性的生涯,主要在伯明翰。
Mostly, they will do it by themselves.
他们通常会自己动手做这事的。
③done do在英语里被称为是代动词,可以表示许多动词的意思。例如:
do good deeds(做好事)
do some repair(修理东西)
do the washing(洗衣物)
do government missions执行政府使命
do honour to the dead向死者致敬
do short stories写短篇小说
do one's hair做头发
do a garden照料花园
done在句中必须与this结合起来理解,根据this指代名词problem,done的意思应该是“解决”。
④by doing sth.常常表示手段、方法或方式,译为“通过……”、“以……”。
例如:
He earns his living by teaching.他以教书为生。
⑤not...but...一般否定前者、肯定后者,译为“不是…而是…”,“没有…但有…”。例如:
It's not water, but alcohol.这不是水,而是酒精。
Some satellite relay stations relay radio waves to the earth but they receive the waves not from the earth, but from other space.
某些卫星中继站向地球转播无线电波,但它们不是从地球而是从外层太空接收无线电波。
从上面的例子可以看出,not...but...在使用中有一个突出的特点,那就是not和but后面的用词往往是对称的:第一例都是名词(water和alcohol),第二例都是介词短语(from the earth和from other space)。题中的not...but...结构是后置定语,not和but后面的用词应该都能修饰名词。related是过去分词,of consequence是介词短语,都可以修饰名词,因为过去分词可作形容词用,而of+名词=形容词(如The book is of great interest.=The book is very interesting.), of consequence可理解为“有结果的”或“产生结果的”。因此后置定语not related to immediate goals but of possible consequence in the future整个可以翻译成:与直接目标没有关系,但是在未来却有可能产生结果。
完整的译文:
给某些与当前目标无关但将来可能产生影响的科研以支持,看来通常能有效地解决这一问题。
 
74) However, the world is so made that elegant systems are in principle unable to deal with some of the world's more fascination and delightful aspects.
句子分析:
第一、句子可以拆分为三段:However, the world is so made / that elegant systems are in principle unable to / deal with some of the world's more fascination and delightful aspects.
第二、句子的结构:
 这是一个复合句。The world is so made是主句,that引导的是结果状语从句。其中elegant systems are...unable to deal with... aspects是从句的主干,in principle是介词短语作状语,some of the world's more fascinating and delightful都是定语,修饰名词aspects。
1)主干结构是the world is so... that...
2) some后面有多重定语of the world's more fascination and delightful aspects.第三、词的处理:
 ①the world is so made直译“世界就是这样构成的”,意译“世界就是如此”。
②elegant systems elegant大纲解释为“优雅的,优美的,精致的”,这些词义与system(体系、系统)都不能搭配,所以引申为“完美的”。注意下列例子中elegant的翻译:
elegant manners优雅的风度
an elegant dress漂亮雅致的女服
a set of books with elegant bindings一套装帧精美的书籍
a life of elegant ease优裕闲适的生活
an elegant style of writing优雅的文体
an elegant piece of reasoning简要明确的论证
an elegant wine上等好酒
②in principle惯用法,意为“原则上,基本上,大体上,在理论上”。
例如:
We agree in principle but we dislike your methods.
我们原则上同意,但我们不喜欢你使用的方法。
There's no reason in principle why man shouldn't one day travel to the most distant stars.
从理论上讲,没有理由认为人类不可能在将来的某一天飞向遥远的星球。
③deal with...aspects按照搭配原则译为“解决…问题”。
注意:这是一个被分开的动宾结构,aspects的词义定位一定要以deal with为依据。
完整的译文:
然而,世界就是如此,完美的体系一般而言是无法解决世界上某些更加引人入胜的课题的。
 
75)New forms of thought as well as new subjects for thought must arise in the future as they have in the past, giving rise to new standards of elegance.
句子分析:
第一、句子可以拆分为三段:New forms of thought as well as new subjects for thought must arise in the future / as they have in the past, / giving rise to new standards of elegance.
第二、句子的结构:
这是一个复合句。New forms of thought as well as new subjects for thought m ust arise in the future是主句,as they have in the past是方式状语从句,giving rise to new standards of elegance是现在分词短语作状语表伴随动作。
第三、词的处理:
①new forms of thought新的思维方式
②as well as=and例如:
Hiking is good exercise as well as fun.
徒步旅行很有趣味,也是很好的锻炼。
In theory as well as in practice, the idea is unsound.
这个主意在理论上和实践中都站不住脚。
③new subjects for thought新的思维对象(或内容)
注意:
subject在此不能理解成“学科”或“题目”,因为它与前面的form构成一对概念,所以应该翻译成“对象”或“内容”。(参见1999年第74题关于technique的解释)
④must此处不能理解成“必须”,而应该理解成“必然要,必定会,一定会”。其他例子如:
What must be will be.
注定要发生的事总要发生。
All men must die.
人都有一死。
If he had really been there, I must have seen him.
如果当时他真的在那里的话,我必定会看到他。
⑤arise产生,出现(参见1999年第72题、2000年第75题)
注意:
arise和rise很容易混淆,因为它们在词义上都是指“由低处向高处移动”,而且都是不及物动词,但rise是个普通词,用得更为广泛,而arise一般用作比喻意义,其主语常常是an argument, a problem, a quarrel, a doubt, a question, a storm, a difficulty, a disagreement之类的抽象名词。试比较:
The wounded man fell and was too weak to rise.
这个受伤的人倒下了,虚弱得站不起来。
A democratic movement has arisen.
掀起了一场民主运动。
New problems seem to arise every day.
似乎每天都出现新问题。
⑥as they have in the past这个从句省略了动词arisen, as在此是连词,意为“正如”。代词they指划线句子中的news forms of thought和new subjects for thought,由于指代对象有明确的翻译,而且所指也比较明确,这时的代词可以译成代词。(参见1997年第71题、75题和1998年第71题)
⑦give rise to是个习惯表达法,意为“引起、导致”。例如:
These bad conditions have given rise to a lot of crime.
这些恶劣的环境导致了许多犯罪。
It would give rise to a great deal of conflict.
这将引起频繁的冲突。
注意giving rise to在英语里表伴随动作,在译文里却表结果。
⑧elegance elegant的名词,在此译为“完美”。
完整的译文:
同过去一样,将来必然会出现新的思维方式和新的思维对象,给完美以新的标准。
 
全文译文
科学研究的各种领域的相关发展,存在若干原因。(71)在这些原因中,有些完全是自然而然地来自社会需求。另一些则是由于科学在一定程度上自我加速而产生某些特定发展的必然结果。然而,有些发展速度的差异其原因就不尽合理,这是因为某些权威人干对科学理论研究应采取何种形式有先入为主的想法,这些想法起了改变不同科学领域的发展模式的作用。这是一个新问题,也许并非是不可避免的问题,但其趋势却令人担忧。(72)这种趋势始于第二次世界大战期间,当时一些国家的政府得出结论:政府要向科研机构提出的具体要求通常是无法详尽预见的。然而,人们可以预见,往往会出现一些问题要求科学做出具体的回答。因此,将科研机构视为一种资源或一台机器,应维持其良好的运行状态。这样做通常是很有价值的。(73)给某些与当前目标无关但将来可能产生影响的科研以支持,看来通常能有效地解决这个问题。
此种资助也与所有政府资助一样,需要决定合适的投资对象。根据某一项目是否有效来做出决策是明确无误的。但是在几个都没有直接效用的项目中,要做出抉择就特别困难。资助机构的目标是支持“好”的科学,而不资助“坏”的科学,那是值得赞扬的。然而要做出正确的抉择却是困难的。人们往往将好科学与该科学是否有能力提出一套完美的理论混淆起来。(74)然而,世界就是如此,完美的体系一般是无法解决世上某些更加引人入胜的课题的。(75)同过去一样,将来必然会出现新的思维方式和新的思维对象,给完美以新的标准。

文章来源:考研英语历年真题解析