2010考研英语阅读翻译

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2010考研英语阅读翻译详细介绍如下,希望可以帮助到您:
One basic weakness in a conservation system based wholly on economic motives is that most members of the land community have no economic value. Yet these creatures are members of the biotic community and, if its stability depends on its inteyrity, they are entitled to continuance.
When one of these noneconomic categories is threatened and, if we happen to love it we invent excuses to give it economic importance. At the beginning of century songbiras were supposed to be disappearing. 46)Scientists jumped to the rescue with some distimctly shaky evidence to the effect that insects would eat us up of birds failed to control them. The evideuce had to be economic in order to be valid.
It is pamful to read these round about accounts today.We have no land ethic yet, 47)but we have at least drawn near the point of admitting that birds should continue as a matter of intrinsic right, regardless of the presence or absence of economic advantage to us.
A parallel situation exists in respect of predatory mammals and fish-eating birds. 48)Time was when biologists somewhat overworked the evidence that these creatures preserve the health of game by killing the physically weak, or that they prey only on “worthless species.
Some species of tree have been read out of the party by economics-minded foresters because they grow too slowly or have too low a sale value to pay as timber crops. 49)In europe, where forestry is ecologically more advanced, the non-commercial tree species are recognized as members of native forest community, to be preserved as such ,within reason.
To sum up:a system of conservation based solely on economic self-interest is hopelessly lopsided. 50)It tends to ignore, and thus eventually to eliminate, many elements in the land community that lack commercial value, but that are essential to its healthy functioning. It assumes, falsely, I think, that the economic parts of the biotic clock will function without the uneconomic parts, It tends to relegate to government many functions eventually too large, too complex, or too widely dispersed to be performed by government.
46)Scientists jumped to the rescue with some distimctly shaky evidence to the effect that insects would eat us up of birds failed to control them.
分析:
1.整个句子的主干结构是scientists jumped to the rescue,这里有一个很生动的动词jumped,直接翻译的意思是“跳着”,引申为“赶紧,急忙,迅速采取行动”。Rescue是“救援,援助”的意思,所以,即使同学们不知道“to the rescue”本身是一个习惯用法也知道怎么翻译:科学家们急忙来挽救这种局面;或者翻译为,科学家们迅速赶来救援。
2.With some distinctly shaky evidence是介词短语作状语,其中有一个比较核心的宾语词evidence(证据),这个单词在考研(论坛) 翻译20来中考过两次,分别出现在95年73题和99年的73题。所以介词with应该翻译为“用,使用”,因为下文宾语是“证据”,所以是“使用证据”,最好不要翻译为“带着证据”。而evidence前面的修饰语distinctly这个词,是“清楚地,确实地,明显地”,这个单词在考研翻译2003年63题考过,在本句话中,它修饰形容词shaky。Shaky是动词shake(摇动)的形容词,意思是“不稳固的,摇晃的”,在本句话中它修饰“证据”,说明“证据站不住脚”。
所以这个部分合起来可以翻译为:科学家们使用一些明显站不住脚的证据,急急忙忙赶来救援。或者也可以直接翻译为:科学家们迅速赶来挽救这种局面,他们使用的证据明显站不住脚。
3.to the effect that... 这个短语是整个句子最难翻译的部分。Effect这个词倒不难,考研翻译考过了很多次,还考过这个单词的不同形式的词性,比如effective。但遗憾的是,大多数同学几乎没有掌握这个短语的意思是“with the meaning”,翻译成汉语就是:“大意是,意思是说...”这样的意思。
4.insects would eat us up of birds failed to control them是to the effect that...所带的从句,本身也是一个复杂句,但是很好翻译,结构简单,意义清晰。但是必须要指出两点。其一,eat us up,可以直译为“把我们吃光”,因为汉语语言本身不具有逻辑,比如汉语我们可以说“他今天把我吃垮了——言下之意是:我请客,他今天吃得够猛,价格还很贵”;所以这个译文应该是正确的。但是“虫子是不能吃人的”,所以我以为最好翻译为:吃光一切东西。其二,fail这个词,千万不要翻译为“失败”,可以翻译为“不能做...”。当然,代词them术语第三人称代词,最好指代明确,它指的是前面的这些“虫子”。
参考译文:
科学家们迅速赶来挽救这种局面,他们使用的证据明显站不住脚,大意是说:如果鸟不能控制这些虫子,虫子就会吃光一切。
47)but we have at least drawn nearer the point of admitting that birds should continue as a matter of intrinsic right, regardless of the presence or absence of economic advantage to us.
分析:
1.划线部分是整个句子的后半个并列句,前面还有一个小句子,意思是说:我们还不具有一种土地伦理意识。But并列了后半个句子。We have at least drawn nearer the point是主干部分,比较好翻译:我们更起码接近了一点,得出了一种观点。
2.of admitting…是一个of短语,修饰前面的“观点”;但是由于admitting后面还带了一个很长的that宾语从句,所以翻译的时候,千万不要把of admitting这个短语后面部分翻译到“观点”前面。这种结构,在2008年46题也出现过,也是我在09年年度的强化冲刺等班上强调得比较多的一点问题。可以直接把of…后面部分翻译在“观点”后面,用一个冒号隔开即可。
3.that birds should continue as a matter of intrinsic right是本句最难翻译的部分,关键有一个intrinsic这个单词,可能好多同学不认识,它是“本身的,固有的,内在的”等意思。这个单词是出题人改写出来的。大家可以看到,我昨天提供的李奥帕多写的《沙郡岁月》原书中不是用的这个词,这个句子在这里有很大的改写。稍微回朔一下原文就知道,在第一段就出现了“Yet these creatures are members of the biotic community and…”,所以这里的鸟类的固有权利是指其“固有的作为一种生物物种的权利”。这样的话,这个部分就可以翻译为:鸟类应该继续享有其作为一种生物物种固有的权利。
4.regardless of the presence or absence of economic advantage to us,是一个regardless of…所带的短语做状语。Economic advantage to us是指“对我们来说,(鸟类)具有的经济价值”。单词advantage,在考研翻译90年和08年都考过,有“优势”的意思。这里直译成“经济优势”,我认为也是可以接受的。而Presence or absence则比较简单,字面意思是“出现或者缺失”,下文说的是“这种经济价值的(出现或者缺失)”,所以最好引申为“是否具有经济价值”。
参考译文:
但是,我们更起码接近了一点,得出了一种观点,即:承认鸟类应该继续享有其作为一种生物物种的权利,不管它们是否对我们具有经济价值。
48)Time was when biologists somewhat over worded the evidence that these creatures preserve the health of game by killing the physically weak, or that they prey only on “worthless species.
1.Time was when...,就这三个词,可能就有点让考生担心。其实关系部大:可以直接翻译为:当时,有一段时间是...。如果稍微看看上下文会更清楚time was when的内涵。上文说:A parallel situation exists in respect of predatory mammals and fish-eating birds.“有一种相似的情况存在......”。所以,这里的time was when...是想指出“在那段时间,相似的情形是...”。当然,我们一般认为time was when是一种非正式用语,它等于there was time when...,比如:Time was when my wife loved me passionately. Now she doesn't even cook for me.(曾几何时,我媳妇儿也曾深深地爱着我,现在,他连饭都不给我做。)所以,time was when翻译为:曾几何时,曾经有那么一段时间,等等,都是很不错的。
2.biologists somewhat overworked the evidence,核心动词是overwork,比较难翻译。如果直接翻译的话是“工作过多,浪费时间过多”。但是考虑到下文是“证据”,所以,肯定不能说:对证据工作得太多;但是基本上可以说:浪费在证据上的时间太多。结合46题,我们就知道,跟证据最搭配的动词是“使用证据”,所以overwork当然轻松的就解决了,意思是“使用证据太多”,翻译为:滥用证据。故整个小句子翻译为:生物学家有点滥用证据。
结合下文that...,很显然下文是对证据的进一步叙述,指出是什么证据,在语法上是两个that引导的同位语从句。所以上文“曾几何时,生物学家有点滥用证据”,最好翻译到整个句子后面,为了清除的叙述是什么证据。
3.That these creatures preserve the health of game by killing the physically weak是that引导的第一个并列同位语从句补充说明前面的evidence。核心动词是preserve,后面接一个by介词短语充当方式状语。所以,基本结构应该翻译为:这些生物通过...来保存...。有一个难点就是preserve这个动词的宾语the health of game的翻译,其一,game这个词肯定不能翻译为“游戏”,而是这些生物的“猎物”;所以preserve the health of game可以直接翻译为“保持猎物的健康(状态)”。其二,这里有点令人费解:为什么要“保持猎物的健康”?通过下文,不难看出:这些生物通过猎杀“the physically weak(体质上比较弱的猎物)”,就保留了那些相对“强的”猎物,以保存其食物链上猎物的健康。所以,这个句子可以翻译为:这些生物通过猎杀弱者来保持猎物的健康状态。
4.or that they prey only on “worthless species是or并列的第二个that同位语从句。其中代词they指的是creatures(这些生物),prey是“捕食”的意思。真个句子翻译为:这些生物捕食的仅仅是“毫无意义的物种”。引号,原文有,直接套用英语(论坛)的形式,加在汉语上即可。
参考译文:
有一种证据认为,这些生物通过猎杀弱者来保存猎物的健康状态,或者说,这些生物捕杀的只不过是“毫无意义的物种”;曾几何时,生物学家有点滥用这种证据。
49)In europe, where forestry is ecologically more advanced, the non-comercial tree species are recognized as members of native forest community, to be preserved as such ,within reason.
1.该句话是本年度最简单的一道题。
In europe, where forestry is ecologically more advanced是一个where引导的定语从句,修饰前面的地点欧洲。可以直接翻译为:在欧洲,其林业在生态上更加发达。
2.the non-comercial tree species are recognized as members of native forest community是整个复合句的主句部分,核心动词是...are recognized as...非常简单的被动态。主语non-commercial tree species可以直接翻译为:非经济类林木,其实就是“公益林”。native forest community是“原始森林群落”的意思,其中commnunity一般翻译为“社区”,这里指生物学上的“群落”。所以,这个句子可以直译为:非经济类林木被认为是原始森林群落的成员。但是考虑到主语是“林木”,所以说“成员”比较不符合习惯,调整为“原始森林群落的一部分”。
3.To be preserved as such, within reason是状语。其中as such是“同样”的意思。整个状语部分很简单,原文直接在后面叙述,汉语译文也可以一样出来:同样应该受到保护,在合理的范围内。也可以翻译为:同样应该受到合理的保护。
参考译文:
在欧洲,其林业在生态上更加发达,公益林木被认为是原始森林群落的一部分,同样应该得到合理保护。
50)It tends to ignore, and thus eventually to eliminate, many elements in the land community that lack commercial value, but that are essential to its healthy functioning.
本句话也比较简单。
It tends to ignore, and thus eventually to eliminate是整个句子的主干部分。核心动词是tend to...,同时and连接了两个不定式to ignore和to eliminate。首先,代词it在整个句子的主语部分,最好指代明确。看上文To sum up:a system of conservation based solely on economic self-interest is hopelessly lopsided.(总之,一个仅仅建立在利己基础上的保护系统是非常平衡的)就知道,it应该指的是上文的这种观点。所以,It tends to ignore, and thus eventually to eliminate...,可以翻译为“这种观点有可能会忽视,并且因此最终会消除...”。
many elements in the land community是上述主干中ignore和eliminate这两个动词的宾语。比较简单,可以直接翻译为:土地群落中的很多因素。
that lack commercial value, but that are essential to its healthy functioning是but并列的两个that引导的定语从句,修饰上文的many elements。由于这个定语从句后面还带了一个并列句,所以可以后置翻译,采用重复先行词的方式。所以,that lack commercial value可以直接翻译为:这些因素缺乏商业价值。but that are essential to its healthy functioning是第二个that定语从句。其中to its healthy functioning是指“对于土地的健康运作而言”。“健康运作”这个翻译是完全可以的,我习惯翻译为“健康机制”。所以,后面第二个定语从句可以直接翻译为:但是对土地的健康机制而言,他们却至关重要。

文章来源:2010考研英语阅读翻译